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  • Definition and Previous Studies of TV Talk Show

    发布时间:2019-07-21 来源:www.taonan8.net  作者:博硕论文辅导网

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    Definition and Previous Studies of TV Talk Show
    With the development of conversation analysis, more and more scholars tend to integrate the theory with other fields, and TV talk show is a good choice.
    1. Definition of TV talk show
        According to the Oxford English Dictionary, talk show is a kind of face to face formal meeting which is arranged at a specified place. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English defines talk show as a kind of television show in which famous people answer questions about themselves. Moreover, the Simplified Dictionary of Broadcasting and Television English holds that English TV talk show is a commentary form of expounding views on social issues or news through the conversation with the host. In the Encyclopedia of Television (Newcomb, 1997), talk shows is defined as the conversation starts from the beginning of the TV program, in which the script is almost unnecessary, and it is a program that can talk to the audience directly. This live and unscripted conversation is a fundamental difference from film, photography, record and books. TV talk show is centered on the conversation, and it has strict time limits, and needs to keep the sensitivity of the topic to stir up the interest of the audience.
    Compared with the above mentioned definitions, Wu Yu (2005) believes that the talk show is a form of television program aiming to actualize information sharing, achieve consensus and get emotional resonance in a conversation between two or more people.
    (Dai, 2007)
        As a special system of speech exchange in English through television, English TV talk show covers many aspects of society. The talk show always takes place in the studio, and the host of the program and the guests are the participants. The guests being invited are mostly public figures, scholars or experts in a certain field. Following a question-response sequence, the host and the guests discuss a predetermined topic.
    Thus, unlike the ordinary talk's structure, the structure of the talk show is specially organized in order to provide more information for the audience.
    2. Previous Studies of TV Talk Show
        The systematic discourse analysis on TV talk show started at the beginning of the 1980s. In recent years, different scholars supplemented the discourse analysis from different aspects by analyzing the real discourse. Analyzing the TV talk show from the perspective of discourse analysis was one of the representatives. Clayman's (1992) study on the television conversation was pretty influential, because his theory covered almost all aspects of the TV talk show. To do his study, Clayman (1992) collected many openings of the talk show. However, he ignored some important part of the conversation, such as the identity of the participants which could be a shortage of his study. To be specific, Drew&Heritage (1992) analyzed the TV talk show as an institutional discourse, which was task related. They also classified the institutional conversation into two types by adopting the method of conversational analysis. In addition, they held the opinion that TV talk show was intermediate between the formal institutional interaction and the ordinary conversation. Carbaugh was another scholar who studied the structure of the private conversation in a public place. While Ducan studied the interaction structure between the listener and the speaker.
        Apart from what has been introduced above, a large amount of comparative studies have been carried out to examine the similarities and differences between different talk shows and other kinds of discourses. Jacobsen (1999) conducted a study and tried to analyze the interaction structure of an English TV talk show with the conversation occurring naturally. He investigated the adjacency pairs, turn-taking, preference organization, pre-sequence and closing sequence in the talk show. He found that the "naturally-occurring conversation-structuring systems rules" could be applied to the TV talk show, but there still existed some departures and deviances. It proved that the participants of the talk show exercised their responsibilities or institutional responsibilities of the certain role (Wu, 2010).
    Dang Hui (2010) analyzed topic-switching phenomenon of talk show in "An Analysis of Turn-taking in TV News Interview from CCTV Program Top Talk"; from the perspective of turn-taking mechanism in the discourse, Xue Yan (2007) explored the characteristics and methods of turn-taking of the host; Li Qiuyun (2010) in "The Internal Types of Question-answer Pair in TV Talk Show一A Study Based on the Data from Yang Lan One on One" discussed the internal types of adjacency pairs in terms of asking for information or message; Zhou Jing (2010) focused on the interruption phenomenon of the talk show host. And then, scholars gradually turned their focus to comparative studies of talk show, such as Zhao Yi (2012), she analyzed the difference between Starface and Kevin Hour from two aspects: topics and turns of speech, and also explored the causes of this difference; Wang Lisha (2012) compared the Art Life with Gathering Joy by Li Yong; she found that there were difference of the beginning, the main part and the end of the two programs by comparing the overall structure. As for the details, these two programs had differences in topic choosing, initiating a topic and coherent ways. The above mentioned studies are almost comparison of talk shows in China; besides, there are many comparative analyses between Chinese and foreign talk shows, and Li Don幻ing (2009) is one of them. She analyzed the characteristics and rules of conversation of the Art Life and Larry King Live respectively from the perspective of pragmatics and semantic perspective; in addition, she further analyzed the pragmatics of the programs from four aspects, namely, correction mechanism, Q&A, repeat and interrupted. While Yang Sisi (2012) chose the Oprah Winfrey Show and Mr. Zhou Live Show as the objects of the study, she analyzed their differences and similarities that exist in the choice of topic, and then tried to discuss the cultural factors from the perspective of topic choosing and the reasons for success. It is believed that this study can link the macro-level consideration of cultural factors and the specific topic level, which will make a meaningful exploration on the influential factors that affect the development of Chinese TV talk shows.

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